Vitamin K is well known for its role in blood clotting, but has also been found to play an important role in normal bone formation and the preservation of bone strength.* Vitamin K2 more specifically is a significant regulator of tissue calcification and is critical for the maintenance of arterial elasticity and cardiovascular health.* Vitamin K2 includes two of the most studied subtypes, MK-7...
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids.* It also plays key roles in gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis, and is therefore critical for maintaining proper glucose and lipid metabolism.* Biotin is also known to be important for healthy skin, hair and nails.*
Niacin is a water soluble B vitamin whose main role is to serve as a precursor for two essential biochemical coenzymes, NAD and NADP.* These two cofactors participate in virtually every aspect of energy production and other metabolic processes.* Niacin coenzymes help the cell use carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy and are critical for DNA replication and repair.* Inositol...
Pantethine, a biologically active form of pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5), is the precursor of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier protein (ACP), which are both essential cofactors in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids.* Pantethine has been shown to promote liver and vascular health through its ability to support healthy lipid metabolism in these tissues.* Clinical and...
Vitamin B12 has the largest and most complex chemical structure of all the vitamins. Most of its functions are related to its co-enzyme activity, such as enzymes required for the production of DNA during cell division, as well as for the proper disposal of homocysteine.* B12 is also necessary for the maintenance of a healthy nervous system.*
The major biologic function of vitamin D is to maintain healthy blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.* Vitamin D supports bone health by promoting calcium absorption and bone mineralization.* Vitamin D also plays an important role in immune function and helps to regulate cell growth and differentiation.*